An Excellent Telemessagem Father’s Day Present

A great telemessagem Fathers Day present for daddy is a small statue of him in your favorite team colors telemensagem dia dos pais. Men are obviously sporty, and what better way to celebrate Father’s Day than to get your dad to the spirit with a distinctive piece of sports memorabilia? There are dozens of alternatives available now, so let’s begin at the start.

Memorials: The First Division teams of the Eastern Conference each have a specially designed nameplate. A trade offer from the Montreal Canadiens on Father’s Day in 1917 is a nice touch. Memorials are available in all sizes and shapes, but a personalized tribute plate makes for a gorgeous memorial.

Soccer Balls: For someone who loves soccer, a soccer ball autographed by an all-star team makes for an excellent Father’s Day present. Anyone who has watched the current World Cup knows that it is difficult to cheer for a single nation when rooting for another. Just select a team you like, and ask your dad to put on their nameplate on his jersey. It’s a present that is extra special as it’s so meaningful.

Motorcycle: Why not get your dad a bicycle for his birthday? Special versions and custom-made bicycles are available at any bike shop. If you’re looking for something a bit more unique, ask him to eventually become your cycling spouse! Just ask him to put on his bike’s nameplate around on his jersey, and the rest is up to you!

Captain’s Armband: This special Day, sign your dad up to get a captain’s armband. You can purchase this armband in any MLB ballpark, and it comes with a special cap using a serial number engraved on it. Your dad will be proudly sporting this armband, and it will live with him for years to come. The captain’s armband is a fantastic Father’s Day gift for anybody, and it is a fantastic gift idea for any age group.

Baseballs: If you’re looking for an extremely old fashioned gift, there’s nothing greater than a baseball autographed by means of a Hall of Famer. Start Looking for one signed by Jackie Robinson, Walter Johnson, or Mike Schmidt. Baseballs are a few of the most durable gifts around, and they are a fantastic Father’s Day gift since the price tag is really low.

Game Ball: If your father is a lover of sports, why not get him a wonderful commemorative match ball. You are also able to get a ball accepted by any of the players at the significant league telemensagem de dia dos pais. These game chunks make excellent gifts for virtually any occasion. Game balls are only as nice as baseballs, plus they’re not anywhere near as expensive.

Baseball cards: Some people collect them to the history of this sport, others for its continuing popularity, but whatever your reasons, baseball cards are classic and equally as suitable for many events. Baseball cards can be great Father’s Day presents for a wide range of ages, and they’re a terrific reminder of the past and also a fun, easy way to stay informed about current events. A baseball card commemorating an important event in history is among the best Father’s Day presents of all.

UMF Entry Topics

The primary focus of UMF admission topics would be to prepare students to be knowledgeable about academic analysis situs pkv games online. This schooling must pass the pre-requisites and will help you achieve a Bachelor’s diploma. Most universities need UMF applicants to obtain the conclusion of the Bachelor’s degree before they are permitted to enroll in any additional classes.

Normally, there are two varieties of UMF admission issues: one to prepare students for the entrance exams, and yet another to assist students become admitted into the university. These two are different, as the next is all about admission into the college rather than prep for the entrance exams. Also, students who are admitted to UMF don’t need to meet the entry requirements for this, so they aren’t required to complete some UMF admission topics.

There are two major UMF entry topics that must be completed by students before they are admitted into UMF. They are:

Course Prerequisites The first of the two topics is titled Fundamental Course Requirements. It features the basic requirements for UMF admission. You should have completed at least twelve credits, including mathematics, English, science, history, and social studies. In case you have completed at least 18 credits, your grade point average might be approved.

Preparation for the Pre-requisites You will have to attend some lectures and take a few assessments. You should have finished these tasks before you’re allowed to attend the initial meeting of your program committee.

Applying for the Entry to the University The Subject of this first discussion is called Applying for the Entry to the University. It discusses what to do throughout the admissions procedure and what’s expected of you throughout the admission procedure.

Preparing for the Admission Examination The second topic is titled Preparing for the Admission Examination situs judi online terpercaya. It covers all of your preparations for the examination.

These are the most common topics you should learn. Since each university will have different entry requirements, the topics will vary from college to university.

Medicines Subjects You May Enjoy Studying

There are many medicine subjects which you can choose from. If you have a passion for medication, you then have many choices open to you in order to gain an education in this field stiri sanatate. Depending upon the course that you enroll in, you may be asked to take some basic courses. However, these are usually easy and can be performed with little if any difficulty.

A range of folks take up medical studies because they want to help others. If that is true, then the area of medicine will be an extremely rewarding one. You might find yourself engaging in research projects or even working with animals. Your career in this discipline will allow you to take care of those who are ill and suffering in hospitals.

Among the most common drug issues which you are able to opt to get is homeopathy. This alternate treatment is based on organic materials and can be used by many people that are very interested in treating illness. You may be surprised to learn there are lots of homeopathic doctors available around the globe who can help you.

If you like nature, you will enjoy studying ecology. This subject takes into account the ramifications of plants and animals on their surroundings. You are going to learn about how and why some plants flourish and others don’t.

There are many different types of subjects that you could take that can help you improve your overall knowledge of medicine. You might realize that carrying the clinical evaluation at the University of London is helpful. It gives you the chance to put yourself under the microscope.

Besides clinical examinations, you’ll also find a lot of books that cover the concepts of the field of medicine. You might find that a number of these books have been used as reference manuals by most graduates in their professions. You’ll also find a lot of information on the internet.

There are several distinct choices available to you when it comes to medicine subjects. Depending upon your interest, you can decide on a subject that’s acceptable for you terapie online. The first step you need to consider when making your choice is to contact your regional University and make a list of subjects that you would like to pursue.

Lots of people graduate from university life with no clue of what is waiting for them after graduation. It’s very important that you start to explore your chosen topic area at an early stage. With an increased level of attention, you will be able to settle on a course that’s ideal for you.

Beginner’s Guide to Computer Forensics

Computer forensics is the practice of collecting, analysing and reporting on digital information in a way that is legally admissible seguridad. It can be used in the detection and prevention of crime and in any dispute where evidence is stored digitally. Computer forensics has comparable examination stages to other forensic disciplines and faces similar issues.

About this guide
This guide discusses computer forensics from a neutral perspective. It is not linked to particular legislation or intended to promote a particular company or product and is not written in bias of either law enforcement or commercial computer forensics. It is aimed at a non-technical audience and provides a high-level view of computer forensics. This guide uses the term “computer”, but the concepts apply to any device capable of storing digital information. Where methodologies have been mentioned they are provided as examples only and do not constitute recommendations or advice. Copying and publishing the whole or part of this article is licensed solely under the terms of the Creative Commons – Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 license

Uses of computer forensics
There are few areas of crime or dispute where computer forensics cannot be applied. Law enforcement agencies have been among the earliest and heaviest users of computer forensics and consequently have often been at the forefront of developments in the field. Computers may constitute a ‘scene of a crime’, for example with hacking [ 1] or denial of service attacks [2] or they may hold evidence in the form of emails, internet history, documents or other files relevant to crimes such as murder, kidnap, fraud and drug trafficking. It is not just the content of emails, documents and other files which may be of interest to investigators but also the ‘meta-data’ [3] associated with those files. A computer forensic examination may reveal when a document first appeared on a computer, when it was last edited, when it was last saved or printed and which user carried out these actions.

More recently, commercial organisations have used computer forensics to their benefit in a variety of cases such as;

  • Intellectual Property theft
  • Industrial espionage
  • Employment disputes
  • Fraud investigations
  • Forgeries
  • Matrimonial issues
  • Bankruptcy investigations
  • Inappropriate email and internet use in the work place
  • Regulatory compliance

For evidence to be admissible it must be reliable and not prejudicial, meaning that at all stages of this process admissibility should be at the forefront of a computer forensic examiner’s mind. One set of guidelines which has been widely accepted to assist in this is the Association of Chief Police Officers Good Practice Guide for Computer Based Electronic Evidence or ACPO Guide for short. Although the ACPO Guide is aimed at United Kingdom law enforcement its main principles are applicable to all computer forensics in whatever legislature. The four main principles from this guide have been reproduced below (with references to law enforcement removed):

  1. No action should change data held on a computer or storage media which may be subsequently relied upon in court.


  1. In circumstances where a person finds it necessary to access original data held on a computer or storage media, that person must be competent to do so and be able to give evidence explaining the relevance and the implications of their actions.


  1. An audit trail or other record of all processes applied to computer-based electronic evidence should be created and preserved. An independent third-party should be able to examine those processes and achieve the same result.


  1. The person in charge of the investigation has overall responsibility for ensuring that the law and these principles are adhered to.

In summary, no changes should be made to the original, however if access/changes are necessary the examiner must know what they are doing and to record their actions.

Live acquisition
Principle 2 above may raise the question: In what situation would changes to a suspect’s computer by a computer forensic examiner be necessary? Traditionally, the computer forensic examiner would make a copy (or acquire) information from a device which is turned off. A write-blocker[4] would be used to make an exact bit for bit copy [5] of the original storage medium. The examiner would work then from this copy, leaving the original demonstrably unchanged.

However, sometimes it is not possible or desirable to switch a computer off. It may not be possible to switch a computer off if doing so would result in considerable financial or other loss for the owner. It may not be desirable to switch a computer off if doing so would mean that potentially valuable evidence may be lost. In both these circumstances the computer forensic examiner would need to carry out a ‘live acquisition’ which would involve running a small program on the suspect computer in order to copy (or acquire) the data to the examiner’s hard drive.

By running such a program and attaching a destination drive to the suspect computer, the examiner will make changes and/or additions to the state of the computer which were not present before his actions. Such actions would remain admissible as long as the examiner recorded their actions, was aware of their impact and was able to explain their actions.

Stages of an examination
For the purposes of this article the computer forensic examination process has been divided into six stages computación. Although they are presented in their usual chronological order, it is necessary during an examination to be flexible. For example, during the analysis stage the examiner may find a new lead which would warrant further computers being examined and would mean a return to the evaluation stage.

Forensic readiness is an important and occasionally overlooked stage in the examination process. In commercial computer forensics it can include educating clients about system preparedness; for example, forensic examinations will provide stronger evidence if a server or computer’s built-in auditing and logging systems are all switched on. For examiners there are many areas where prior organisation can help, including training, regular testing and verification of software and equipment, familiarity with legislation, dealing with unexpected issues (e.g., what to do if child pornography is present during a commercial job) and ensuring that your on-site acquisition kit is complete and in working order.

The evaluation stage includes the receiving of clear instructions, risk analysis and allocation of roles and resources. Risk analysis for law enforcement may include an assessment on the likelihood of physical threat on entering a suspect’s property and how best to deal with it. Commercial organisations also need to be aware of health and safety issues, while their evaluation would also cover reputational and financial risks on accepting a particular project.

The main part of the collection stage, acquisition, has been introduced above. If acquisition is to be carried out on-site rather than in a computer forensic laboratory then this stage would include identifying, securing and documenting the scene. Interviews or meetings with personnel who may hold information which could be relevant to the examination (which could include the end users of the computer, and the manager and person responsible for providing computer services) would usually be carried out at this stage. The ‘bagging and tagging’ audit trail would start here by sealing any materials in unique tamper-evident bags. Consideration also needs to be given to securely and safely transporting the material to the examiner’s laboratory.

Analysis depends on the specifics of each job. The examiner usually provides feedback to the client during analysis and from this dialogue the analysis may take a different path or be narrowed to specific areas. Analysis must be accurate, thorough, impartial, recorded, repeatable and completed within the time-scales available and resources allocated. There are myriad tools available for computer forensics analysis. It is our opinion that the examiner should use any tool they feel comfortable with as long as they can justify their choice. The main requirements of a computer forensic tool is that it does what it is meant to do and the only way for examiners to be sure of this is for them to regularly test and calibrate the tools they use before analysis takes place. Dual-tool verification can confirm result integrity during analysis (if with tool ‘A’ the examiner finds artefact ‘X’ at location ‘Y’, then tool ‘B’ should replicate these results.)

This stage usually involves the examiner producing a structured report on their findings, addressing the points in the initial instructions along with any subsequent instructions. It would also cover any other information which the examiner deems relevant to the investigation. The report must be written with the end reader in mind; in many cases the reader of the report will be non-technical, so the terminology should acknowledge this. The examiner should also be prepared to participate in meetings or telephone conferences to discuss and elaborate on the report.

Along with the readiness stage, the review stage is often overlooked or disregarded. This may be due to the perceived costs of doing work that is not billable, or the need ‘to get on with the next job’. However, a review stage incorporated into each examination can help save money and raise the level of quality by making future examinations more efficient and time effective. A review of an examination can be simple, quick and can begin during any of the above stages. It may include a basic ‘what went wrong and how can this be improved’ and a ‘what went well and how can it be incorporated into future examinations’. Feedback from the instructing party should also be sought. Any lessons learnt from this stage should be applied to the next examination and fed into the readiness stage.

Issues facing computer forensics
The issues facing computer forensics examiners can be broken down into three broad categories: technical, legal and administrative.

Encryption – Encrypted files or hard drives can be impossible for investigators to view without the correct key or password. Examiners should consider that the key or password may be stored elsewhere on the computer or on another computer which the suspect has had access to. It could also reside in the volatile memory of a computer (known as RAM [6] which is usually lost on computer shut-down; another reason to consider using live acquisition techniques as outlined above.

Increasing storage space – Storage media holds ever greater amounts of data which for the examiner means that their analysis computers need to have sufficient processing power and available storage to efficiently deal with searching and analysing enormous amounts of data.

New technologies – Computing is an ever-changing area, with new hardware, software and operating systems being constantly produced. No single computer forensic examiner can be an expert on all areas, though they may frequently be expected to analyse something which they haven’t dealt with before. In order to deal with this situation, the examiner should be prepared and able to test and experiment with the behaviour of new technologies. Networking and sharing knowledge with other computer forensic examiners is also very useful in this respect as it’s likely someone else may have already encountered the same issue.

Anti-forensics – Anti-forensics is the practice of attempting to thwart computer forensic analysis. This may include encryption, the over-writing of data to make it unrecoverable, the modification of files’ meta-data and file obfuscation (disguising files). As with encryption above, the evidence that such methods have been used may be stored elsewhere on the computer or on another computer which the suspect has had access to. In our experience, it is very rare to see anti-forensics tools used correctly and frequently enough to totally obscure either their presence or the presence of the evidence they were used to hide.

Legal issues
Legal arguments may confuse or distract from a computer examiner’s findings. An example here would be the ‘Trojan Defence’. A Trojan is a piece of computer code disguised as something benign but which has a hidden and malicious purpose. Trojans have many uses, and include key-logging [7], uploading and downloading of files and installation of viruses. A lawyer may be able to argue that actions on a computer were not carried out by a user but were automated by a Trojan without the user’s knowledge; such a Trojan Defence has been successfully used even when no trace of a Trojan or other malicious code was found on the suspect’s computer. In such cases, a competent opposing lawyer, supplied with evidence from a competent computer forensic analyst, should be able to dismiss such an argument.

Accepted standards – There are a plethora of standards and guidelines in computer forensics, few of which appear to be universally accepted. This is due to a number of reasons including standard-setting bodies being tied to particular legislations, standards being aimed either at law enforcement or commercial forensics but not at both, the authors of such standards not being accepted by their peers, or high joining fees dissuading practitioners from participating.

Fitness to practice – In many jurisdictions there is no qualifying body to check the competence and integrity of computer forensics professionals. In such cases anyone may present themselves as a computer forensic expert, which may result in computer forensic examinations of questionable quality and a negative view of the profession as a whole.

Resources and further reading
There does not appear to be a great amount of material covering computer forensics which is aimed at a non-technical readership. However the following links at links at the bottom of this page may prove to be of interest prove to be of interest:

1. Hacking: modifying a computer in way which was not originally intended in order to benefit the hacker’s goals.
2. Denial of Service attack: an attempt to prevent legitimate users of a computer system from having access to that system’s information or services.
3. Meta-data: at a basic level meta-data is data about data. It can be embedded within files or stored externally in a separate file and may contain information about the file’s author, format, creation date and so on.
4. Write blocker: a hardware device or software application which prevents any data from being modified or added to the storage medium being examined.
5. Bit copy: bit is a contraction of the term ‘binary digit’ and is the fundamental unit of computing. A bit copy refers to a sequential copy of every bit on a storage medium, which includes areas of the medium ‘invisible’ to the user.
6. RAM: Random Access Memory. RAM is a computer’s temporary workspace and is volatile, which means its contents are lost when the computer is powered off.
7. Key-logging: the recording of keyboard input giving the ability to read a user’s typed passwords, emails and other confidential information.

Los Angeles Cosmetic Dentists

Dentists diagnose and treat problems with teeth or mouth tissues and guide us on preventive measures teeth whitening los angeles. They perform several functions, and also do corrective surgery on gums and supporting bones to treat gum diseases. The job also includes the restoration of teeth damaged or lost by decay, trauma or other reasons, using a wide variety of techniques and materials. A cosmetic dentist emphasizes dental aesthetics and dental restorations.

A smile is the most beautiful thing in this world, and we all desire a bright smile with twinkling teeth. Cosmetic dentists in Los Angeles are among the best when it comes to perfecting a beautiful smile. They follow the latest cosmetic dentistry techniques and specialize in all cosmetic dentistry procedures.

Dentists use a variety of equipment, like x-ray machines, drills, mouth mirrors, probes, brushes, forceps, scalpels and others. To protect them from infectious diseases they wear masks, gloves, and safety glasses while examining or treating a patient. Dentists can also administer anesthetics if required.

Certain areas they work on include tooth whitening, dental implants, dental bridges, tooth reshaping, dentures, dental crowns, root canals and cosmetic gum surgery. The most common of these are areas involve using veneers, which are thin shells of porcelain or plastic, bonded to a tooth to improve color and shape. They also use bonding, which closes spaces between teeth, lengthens small or misshapen teeth, or whitens stained or dark teeth dentist office near me. They also do white fillings, which are of porcelain or composite resin, which makes them attractive, durable, and natural-looking. They work on all-porcelain crowns and bridges, which are a breakthrough in adhesives and stronger porcelain materials.

A cosmetic dentist may implement a combination of several procedures to give that perfect smile. Whatever it takes, they work on creating the most beautiful smile and do complete smile makeovers and cosmetic dental surgery.

Coleman Air Compressor – All You Need to Know About It Before You Shop

For air compression, there are various types of compressors that are used in the filed of industries, agriculture and even home use. The extra air that is given out is used for many purposes agriculture air compressor. These air compressors are often referred to as lungs. The only difference is that our lungs are not as powerful as these, thus we have to spend some money buying these strong compressors to meet our needs. If we are blowing candles on our birthday party, we can make use of our lungs but when doing heavy duty work at fields and other places then we definitely would need them.

Coleman air compressor is remarkable in its use; it does not have a match because of the incredible duty and power it possesses. The company offers various models and types of air compressors to fulfill various needs and purposes. There are some which are cordless, some have quick unit to pump and there are also some with station filtration. The cordless ones are those which need to be recharged after every use. They do not have a wire or a cordless attached permanently to them, as their name indicates. Thus, they can be used at any time and any place. They can be carried to camping and picnicking as well as for several other needs industrial air compressor. Those that have quick pump units are highly efficient and fast while those with station filtration can be extremely suitable for urgent uses.

The different uses and needs that you can fulfill with these high ranges of air compressors include airing air mattresses, balloons, cycle tires, camping tents and so on. There are also many uses it can serve in industrial and agricultural fields. Make sure that the one you pick for your need is designed to meet the specific need you want it for. The cordless air compressors should only be picked after learning their battery lives. If the battery life is good, then nothing more suitable than this can be bought, whereas if the battery life is low, then do not waste your money buying something which is not worth it.

Buffet Catering As an Option for Your Event

If you are hosting a function for work, or if you are planning on hosting some type of party or formal gathering, choosing buffet catering from a catering company, is one option to choose when deciding on the food to serve to your guests. By choosing to go with the option of buffet catering, not only will the host not have to worry about preparing the food themselves, but they are also going to find that the buffet is likely to have food options, and certain types of foods, that all guests who attend the party are going to enjoy eating Omaha Barbeque Catering. Additionally, by choosing to go with buffet catering for a formal gathering or function, the host can be rest assured that all guests are going to enjoy the food, and that they will not be required to do the work themselves.

When choosing a catering company to offer the buffet catering, a host has to consider choosing a caterer that will give them the option of what types of dishes will be served, as well as the option of having both hot and cold dishes served to guests. Therefore, if a particular guest is a vegetarian, or if someone has diabetic diet needs, the host will know that there is still going to be something on the buffet catering line which is served, that the guest is going to eat. It will also ensure that if a few guests request a particular dish, or a type of food that they want served, the catering company will be able to provide it to their guests, and make all guests who attend the party happy.

By choosing to go with buffet catering for the event, the host will also find that it is far more economical than trying to hire a caterer to do sit down meals for each guest. Since the catering crew will only be setting up the buffet, rather than having to serve and clean up after guests, it is going to be cheaper for the host to choose the option of going with a buffet catering line when hiring the catering company, rather than choosing to purchase individual meals, or have the caterers offer sit down meals to all of the guests who are going to be in attendance at the event, or at a formal gathering or function which is being held for those guests.

No matter who will be attending, how many guests are attending, or what type of dietary needs a particular guest might have, by choosing the option of using a buffet catering line, rather than a personal caterer that makes sit down meals, the host will have foods for all guests, and will save on the overall costs Omaha Barbeque. It will also alleviate stress on the host to have things done by a certain time, or for the host to have to consider making the meals or food to be served on their own, running the risk of having dishes guests will not enjoy.

The War on Used Games

As we prepare for the coming wave of next generation systems, we should be anticipating improvements on all the good things we associate with the current crop of systems. Moving forward we expect: better graphics, faster processors, more engaging games, you get the idea SA Gaming. But not everything that we’re anticipating will be a progressive movement for gaming. At least, as far as Sony and Microsoft are concerned, you can wave goodbye to playing used games on their systems. Although these are just rumors at this point, it wouldn’t be surprising if they came to fruition. It’s very plausible, especially when taking into consideration that several game publishers have already fired shots at the used game market.

Most notable is Electronic Arts(EA), who became the first publisher to institute the practice of charging gamers, who bought used games, a fee to access codes that come with the game. To elaborate, Downloadable Content(DLC) codes are included with new copies of a particular game and only with those codes, can that content be accessed. EA expanded its project to include playing used games online. Gamers would now have to pay $10, in addition to the cost of the used game that they purchased, in order to have access to the online components of their game. Ubisoft has since followed suit, requiring an online pass for its games as well. You can identify the games which require an online pass as they bare the,”Uplay Passport”, logo on the box.

Ubisoft decided they’d take things a step further and implement Digital Rights Management, a practice more often associated with DVD or CD anti-piracy efforts. Assassins Creed 2 was the first game to be effected by this practice. In order to play the PC version of Assassins Creed 2, gamers are required to create an account with Ubisoft and remain logged into that account in order to play the game. This means that if you lose your internet connection, the game will automatically pause and try to reestablish the connection. However, if you’re unfortunate enough to be unable to reconnect to the internet you’ll have to continue from your last saved game; losing any progress you may have made since then. This will be the case for all of Ubisoft’s PC titles, regardless of one playing single-player or multi-player. While Digital Rights Management has been used to combat DVD and CD piracy for quite some time now, this will mark the first time it’s been used for a video game. In light of Ubisoft’s implementation of DRM, Matthew Humphries of, cautions that it’s feasible that eventually even console games will require online registration in order to play them.

So what’s the reason for all of this? According to According to Denis Dyack, the head of Silicon Knights, the sale of used games is cannibalizing the profit of the primary game market. He also claims that the used game market is somehow causing the price of new games to rise. His proposed solution is to move away from physical disks and embrace digital distribution. Essentially he’d like to see services like Steam or EA’s Origin replace traditional hard copies. There are even rumors that the X-Box 720 will embrace the exclusive use of digital downloads and not use disks at all. Whether Microsoft will actually follow through with that plan remains to be seen.

One could argue that Sony has already laid the ground work for preventing used games from functioning on their future system. At the very least, they’ve already made quite an effort to make used games significantly less desirable. Kath Brice, of, reported that the latest SOCOM game for PSP, SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs Fireteam Bravo 3, will require customers who purchase a used copy to pay an addition $20 dollars to receive a code for online play.

I’d like to see some quantifiable evidence to support the claim that used games are in fact hurting the sales of new games at all. Without some actual facts, it sounds to me like a whole lot to do about nothing. Case in point, within 24 hours Modern Warfare 3 sold 6.5 million copies, grossing $400 million dollars in sales. Correct me if I’m wrong but you haven’t heard Infinity Ward complaining about the used game market and it affecting their bottom line. That’s likely because they’re too busy counting their money earned by creating games that people actually want to play. Imagine that. Maybe the problem isn’t that used games have a negative impact on the sale of new games but, the problem is instead that game developers need to make better games that gamers are willing to pay full price for.

In my opinion, not every game is worth $60 simply because it’s the suggested retail price. Looking at things objectively, not every game is created equally, therefore not every game is worthy of costing $60. Whether it’s because that particular game failed to meet expectations and live up to the hype or because it lacks any sort of replay value. It’s ludicrous to argue that gamers should pay top dollar for every game especially when they all too often turn out to be horrible disappointments, like Ninja Gadian 3, or they’re riddled with glitches like Skyrim.

I suspect that the War on Used Games is nothing more than a money grab by developers, upset that they’re unable to cash in on a very lucrative market. To put it in dollars and cents, in 2009 GameStop reported nearly $2.5 million dollars in revenue from the sale of used consoles and used games. And not one red cent of that profit reaches the pockets of game publishers. Greed as the motivating factor for the declaration of War on Used Games is transparent. Especially when you consider that when GameStop began separating their revenue from new games and used games in their financial statements, EA thereafter instituted their $10 dollar fee for used games.

In the absence of empirical evidence, I’ll have to settle for anecdotal. I’ll use myself as an example. I’m planning to purchase a used copy of Ninja Gaidan 2. I’ve never been a huge fan of the series. I didn’t play the first one because I didn’t have an Xbox and at the time it was an Xbox exclusive. And I never played the original version. Needless to say, I was never clamoring to play Ninja Gaidan 2. However the innovation in the second incarnation of the game, which allows you to disembowel your enemies, is enough of a novelty that I’d like to play through it at some point. I can buy it now, used, for about 10 dollars. If it was only being sold at full price I would more than likely pass on playing it altogether or maybe rent it. My point is that game developers are not losing money because of used games; you can’t miss money you weren’t going to receive anyway. They’re simply not getting money they weren’t going to get to begin with.

Unless you have a significant amount of disposable income and a considerable amount of free time, you’re probably like me and you prioritize which games you plan to purchase and how much you’re willing to pay for them. You decide which games are must haves and which games you’d like to play but are willing to wait for a price drop before getting them. Then there are the games which you’re interested in, but they tend to fall through the cracks because they’re not all that high on your radar and you’ll maybe pick them up several months later, or even years after their release, if you ever pick them up at all.

I find it ironic that the looming death of the used game market could likely spell the demise of GameStop who, ironically, push their customers to pre-order new games and purchase them at full price Sood SA. One would think that game publishers would be appreciative about this service and not detest GameStop and treat used games with such scorn. Pre-orders not only help promote their games but they function as a forecast of potential sales as well. Even Dave Thier, a contributor for Forbes Online, who describes GameStop as, “a parasitic bloodsucker that doesn’t do much besides mark up discs and sit in the mall”, recognizes the folly of passing the burden of the used game market onto the consumer.

I’ve only once pre-ordered a game myself. At the behest of J. Agamemnon, I pre-ordered Battlefield 3, which is ironically a property of EA. I paid full price for this game and was happy to do so. In large part because I was granted access to several weapons and maps that I would have had to wait to download had I not pre-ordered it. I propose that instead of punishing gamers for wanting to save their hard earned cash, the gaming industry needs to learn to incentivize gamers into wanting to pony up to that $60 dollar price tag.

I titled this article The War on Used Games in an effort to be tongue-in-cheek and poke fun at how whenever the government declares war on drugs or terror or whatever it may be, they only succeed in exacerbating the problem. It should come as no surprise seeing as how the government tends to take the most asinine approach possible trying to “solve” problems. The end result is always the same; precious time and resources are wasted, and the issue is that much worse than it was before they intervened. If the gaming industry does indeed go down this path; they’ll only hurt themselves in the long run, fail to share in the revenue they so greedily covet and worst of all, hurt their customers, who keep the gaming industry abreast with currency.

It’s very ironic and actually very fitting that it’s EA who are spearheading the effort to attack the used game market when they themselves are one of the largest beneficiaries of used games. Chipsworld MD Don McCabe, told that EA has what he referred to as a “franchise software house” in that they “upgrade their titles; FIFA, Madden; all of these are effectively the same title upgraded each year. And people trade in last year’s for this year’s.” He went onto say that those titles are the ones which are most often traded in. Shutting down the used games market effectively destroys a tried and true method in which fans of EA’s franchises keep up-to-date with each of EA’s annual releases. Aside from nostalgia, what would be the point of holding onto FIFA 11, when FIFA 12 is right around the corner?

Don McCabe, an executive at Chipsworld, explains that, “consumers won’t prosper under this new system, as copies of the game will lose their resale value”. He goes on to say that retailers will “just readjust [the price] bearing in mind you have to buy the voucher.” The CEO of SwapGame cautions that “customers who trade in for cash or credit do so to acquire new games they could otherwise not afford.” This means that ultimately it will be the publisher who ends up losing money because when retailers adjust their prices to reflect the increase in cost for used games, the resale value of the game will drop and new games are less likely to be purchased.

I’m a fan of several EA franchises, I enjoy Ubisoft’s Assassin’s Creed and I’m a die hard Sony PlayStation enthusiast. As their customer, I’m outraged and offended by their current practices. I fear for what future methods they may use to further stifle or even kill the used game market. That said, I’m hopeful that these companies will be receptive to the outcry of their customers and adhere to our wants. I implore them to discontinue punishing their customers in an effort to capture what they perceive as missed profits. They risk not only alienating their customers but they risk finding themselves with significantly fewer customers and substantially less profit. And at the end of the day, that’s really the bottom line.

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Inflow Management – If, the instant you made a sale, you were paid, cashflow problems would not arise. However, by good management of your receivables, cash flow will improve. The principle here is to increase the rapidity with which you can convert supplies into products, stock into sales and sales into funds. Consider the following techniques to achieve this goal:

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Outflow Management – It is essential to watch expenses very carefully when managing a company. When sales are going well and increasing it is easy to be lulled into a false sense of security. If expenses begin to grow faster than sales, act swiftly to control them. Consider these money management tips:

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Sustaining working capital is a challenge for all business, but with good cash flow management it can be done.

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